Two Plus Four Agreement

After only six months, the foreign ministers of the two German states and the four allies signed the agreement on 12 September 1990 in Moscow. The Allies immediately suspended their rights; On 2 October, the treaty was also submitted to the CSCE states, which became aware of it “with great satisfaction”. With archival recordings, contemporary documents and largely unknown CIA files, the documentary takes a behind-the-scenes look at these important negotiations 30 years ago. We are talking to politicians and diplomats involved in the controversies over German unity and the agreements reached at the time, including former US Secretary of State James Baker and French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas, chief negotiators Robert Zoellick, Dieter Kastrup, Bertrand Dufourcq and Philip John Weston, as well as advisers to Francois Mitterand, Helmut Kohl and Margaret Thatcher. And members of the last East German government, such as Prime Minister Lothar de MaiziĆ©re, Foreign Minister Markus Meckel and Thilo Steinbach, tell us how they experienced the unification process in the days leading up to the end of their country. Radio hours: Ronald Reagan`s military construction in the United States and Gorbachev`s perestroika and glasnost in the Soviet Union had created the conditions for what had seemed unthinkable for more than forty years: representatives of the two German states and the four victorious powers gathered around a table and established consensus. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, the command unit of the Soviet group transferred Soviet forces to Germany to the Russian Federation. The German government then recognized the claim of the Russian Federation as a successor state of the Soviet Union, including the right to maintain troops in Germany until the end of 1994. However, with post-Soviet Russia in a serious economic situation, President Boris Yeltsin ordered that the deployment of Russian troops to Germany be significantly less than that envisaged by the treaty. The last Russian troops left Germany at the end of August 1994, four months before the contractual deadline expired.

In early February 1990, France, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States adopted the “two plus four” format in Ottawa. The aim is to “resolve the foreign aspects of German unification, including the security issues of neighbouring countries with the two German states.” The first round of negotiations between the six states began in May in Bonn, followed by others in East Berlin and Paris in the summer, and in Moscow in September. The “two plus four” treaty was quickly ratified by unified Germany and the three Western powers. Moscow, on the other hand, has taken its time. After a long and controversial debate in the Supreme Soviet, it ratified the treaty on 4 March 1991. The treaty came into force on 15 March 1991, when the instruments for ratification were handed over to German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher. Recalling the rights and responsibilities of the four powers towards Berlin and Germany as a whole, as well as the corresponding war and war agreements and decisions between the four powers, After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the reunification of Germany was only possible after the agreement between the Soviet Union, the United States, France and Great Britain. During the two plus four talks, the foreign ministers of the four victorious powers and their two German colleagues negotiated how to bring the two German states together.

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